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[4] Nonetheless, he graduated in 1786. In the documents below, he is to be seen introducing social legislation that the historian Mathiez regarded as the key to the long-range program of the Robespierrists, the Ventôse decrees, one of the most controversial aspects of the Terror, difficult to interpret but extremely important because of the problem of how to retain and use political power in the circumstances of 1794. In these circumstances, on the first day of Ventôse in Year II of the Revolution (19 February 1794), Saint-Just was elected President of the National Convention. — Louis Antoine de Saint-Just. He joined the Parisian Jacobin Club, but he remained aloof from Girondins and Montagnards alike. [107] He first published this work in 1951 under the title "Un manuscrit oublié de Saint-Just" in the Annales historiques de la révolution française, No. [52], During the time that Saint-Just was working on the constitution, dramatic political warfare was taking place. Henceforth the government will pardon no more crimes". [57] He became "the ice-cold ideologist of republican purity",[120] "as inaccessible as stone to all the warm passions". [63], Among soldiers and civilians alike, Saint-Just repressed opponents of the Revolution, but he did not agree to the mass executions ordered by some of the other deputies on the mission. Camus identifies Saint-Just's successful argument for the execution of Louis XVI as the moment of death for monarchical divine right, a Nietzschean Twilight of the Idols. [57] He vetoed much of the deputies' work and had many of them recalled to Paris. — Louis Antoine de Saint-Just. Saint-Just, still on the platform, remained unmoved and "looked on contemptuously" at the scene. [97], On the dais, Saint-Just declared the absolute necessity of current law, and conspiring deputies buzzed angrily as he spoke. Saint-Just, Louis-Antoine de (1767-1794): French Revolutionary. [35] From April through June 1794,[59] he again took supreme oversight of the Army of the North and contributed to the victory at Fleurus. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. QUOTES AND POLITICAL THOUGHT. [Source: Oeuvres Complètes de Saint-Just, Vol. Louis Antoine de Saint-Just; Louis de Saint-Just; Saint-Just. [57] On his first day at the front, he issued a proclamation promising "examples of justice and severity as the Army has not yet witnessed". Saint-Just, Louis-Antoine de (1767-1794): French Revolutionary. French revolutionary. This success as a représentant en mission led to two more visits to the front, including acclaimed participation in the major Battle of Fleurus. Speech to the National Convention (December 27, 1792). Any contemplation of his own suicide is unclear, but he alone emerged unruffled from the wild, violent final arrest. Property must be protected by the state but, to secure universal independence, all citizens (including women) must own property. Louis Antoine de Saint-Just was born at Decize in the former Nivernais province of central France. [7] Though no evidence of their relationship exists, official records show that on 25 July 1786, Thérèse was married to Emmanuel Thorin, the scion of a prominent local family. Shortly after its establishment, however, administration of the new bureau passed to Robespierre when Saint-Just left Paris once more for the front lines. Louis Antoine de Saint Just, Spirit of the Revolution, Excerpts on Religion, Translation He only came down a few steps, then mounted again, to continue his discourse proudly... Motionless, unmoved, he seemed to defy everyone with his calm. For his unyielding severity, later writers dubbed him the "Angel of Death". Saint-Just's theories about constitutional monarchy were suddenly outdated. He was especially opposed to Saint Just’s fanaticism and "extravagant" use of violence. Louis Antoine de Saint-Just's speech to the National Convention (December 27, 1792), as quoted in "Oeuvres Completes de Saint-Just", Volume 1, edited by Charles Vellay (p. 383), 1908. [128] Saint-Just's dedication to "the sovereignty of the people and the sacred power of laws" is described as "a source of absolutism" and indeed "the new God". [20] At local meetings he moved attendees with his patriotic zeal and flair: in one much-repeated story, Saint-Just brought the town council to tears by thrusting his hand into the flame of a burning anti-revolutionary pamphlet, swearing his devotion to the Republic. [84] He felt vindicated when the victory sent the Austrians and their allies into a full retreat from all the Southern Netherlands. Louis Antoine de Saint-Just was born at Decize in the former Nivernais province of France. In 1789, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, son of a retired cavalry officer, was twenty-two. The next year, at twenty-five, he was elected to the Convention, where his first speech was an indictment of Louis XVI. Louis Antoine de Saint-Just WikiAudio. [107] Alain Liénard's Saint-Just, théorie politique and later collections include an expanded version. [50], The Convention had given the Committee extraordinary authority to provide for state security since the outbreak of the French Revolutionary War in early 1793. St. Just was described as "A brain of fire, a heart of ice." Travaillons enfin pour le bonheur du peuple, et que les legislateurs qui doivent éclairer le monde prennent leur course d'un pied hardi, comme le soleil. Speech to the National Convention (December 27, 1792). [76], The ongoing political combat—bloody enough since at least the time of the arrest of the Girondins to be known as the Reign of Terror— spread inexorably. [115] He was repeatedly described by contemporaries as arrogant, believing himself to be a skilled leader and orator as well as having proper revolutionary character. [58] Local politicians were just as vulnerable to him: even Eulogius Schneider, the powerful leader of Alsace's largest city, Strasbourg, was arrested on Saint-Just's order,[64] and much equipment was commandeered for the army. Ultra-radical Hébertists in the Cordeliers Club undermined Jacobin efforts to court and manage the sans-culottes, and the most extreme Hébertists even called openly for insurrection. [10], At a young age Saint-Just had shown a fascination with literature,[11] and he wrote works of his own including a one-act play Arlequin Diogène. Early on, he became a commander in his local National Guard unit. One week after their adoption, he urged that the Decrees be exercised vigorously and hailed them for ushering in a new era: "Eliminate the poverty that dishonors a free state; the property of patriots is sacred but the goods of conspirators are there for the wretched. When soldiers finally broke inside, a number of the defeated Jacobins tried to commit suicide; Saint-Just stood beside Lebas who shot himself in the head. Vol. [51], The new constitution remained a showpiece for Saint-Just but little more. Besides serving as a representative on mission, Saint-Just bore a great part of the political burden of maintaining the ascendancy of the Committee of Public Safety in the Convention and that of the Convention in Paris and in the country at large. Louis Antoine de Saint-Just quotes When human statecraft attaches a chain to the feet of a free man, whom it makes a slave in contempt of nature and citizenship, eternal justice rivets the … [64] A little over a week later, Saint-Just told the Convention that the Hébertist's activities were part of a foreign plot against the government. Saint-Just was out of town and unaware of the event, and tradition portrays him as brokenhearted. [Source: Oeuvres Complètes de Saint-Just, Vol. [101] Among the captured, "only St. Just, his hands bound but his head held high, was able to walk.". As the Terror reached its apogee – the so-called "Great Terror"—the danger of a counterstrike by his enemies became almost inevitable. Along the way he was a primary draftsman of radical Jacobin legislation such as the Ventôse Decrees and the Constitution of 1793. This is a preview of subscription content, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-00526-0_41, The Documentary History of Western Civilization. [70], Opponents of the Jacobins saw the Ventôse Decrees as a cynical ploy to appeal to the militant extreme left. As the death toll mounted, opponents ultimately found their footing. The notary Gellé, previously an undisputed town leader, was challenged by a group of reformists who were led by several of Saint-Just's friends, including the husband of his sister Louise. 1 … There should be neither rich nor poor". A year after the move, Louis Antoine's father died leaving his mother with their three children. Louis Antoine Léon Florelle de Saint-Just was born in 1767 to a retired army officer and a notary's daughter. Louis Antoine Léon Florelle de Saint-Just was born in 1767 to a retired army officer and a notary's daughter. [94], The Law of Prairial was the breaking point for opponents of Robespierre. [116] This self-assurance manifested itself in a superiority complex, and he always "made it clear… that he considered himself to be in charge and that his will was law". [71] Sincere or not, Saint-Just made impassioned arguments for them. Nevertheless, censors who tried to confiscate copies discovered that few were available anywhere. French revolutionary. She was the daughter of a wealthy notary, a powerful and autocratic figure in the town; he was still an undistinguished adolescent. [58] The mission lasted from November through December 1793. Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just (IPA: [sɑ̃ʒust]) (25 August 1767 – 28 July 1794), usually known as Saint-Just, was a French revolutionary and military leader. Not affiliated In dramatic contrast to the earlier speakers, Saint-Just delivered a blazing condemnation of him. Download preview PDF. They were published as a single volume, Fragments sur les institutions républicaines. [65] Saint-Just worked closely only with General Charles Pichegru, a reliable Jacobin whom he respected. Part of Springer Nature. Abstract. [23] Through their correspondence, the two developed "a deep and mysterious friendship that would last until the day [they] died". Committee members were originally intended to serve for periods of only thirty days before replacements were elected, so they needed to work quickly. [108], Based on the assumption that man is a social animal, Saint-Just argues that in nature there is no need for contracts, legislation, or acts of force. He is said to have proposed marriage to her, which she is said to have desired. Louis Antoine de Saint-Just by Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, 1793 In the past we have met many famed figures of the French Revolution and witnessed many iconic victims of the National Razor , Today we return to that heady time and the death of a man whose name has become synonymous with the Terror, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just. [104], Many of Saint-Just's legislative proposals were compiled after his death to form an outline for a communal and egalitarian society. [27] Instead, he heaped his praise upon the people's representatives in the Legislative Assembly, whose sober virtue would guide the Revolution best. [113], Ambitious and active-minded,[114] Saint-Just worked urgently and tirelessly towards his goals: "For Revolutionists there is no rest but in the tomb". In later years, these drafts and notes were put together in various collections along with Organt, Arlequin Diogène, L'Esprit de la Revolution, public speeches, military orders, and private correspondence. Saint-Just and Robespierre were arrested in the bloody coup of 9 Thermidor (27 July 1794) and executed the next day along with many of their allies. Chastened, Saint-Just attempted to begin anew: he enrolled as a student at Reims University's School of Law. [75] On 4 Germinal (24 March 1794), the Tribunal sent Hébert, Charles-Philippe Ronsin, François-Nicolas Vincent and most other prominent Hébertists to the guillotine. The timing was excellent for Saint-Just, who turned the legal age of 25 before the end of the month. As Paris convulsed in political violence, Robespierre required his assistance. He oppressed a free nation; he declared himself its enemy; he abused the laws: he must die to assure the repose of the people, since it was in his mind to crush the people to assure his own". In 1791, at twenty-four, he published a book called Esprit de la révolution et de la constitution de France.The next year, at twenty-five, he was elected to the Convention, where his first speech was an indictment of Louis … He was quickly sent back to the front lines, this time in Belgium where the Army of the North was experiencing the same problems of discipline and organization. It did not sell well and resulted in a financial loss for its author. [133] Saint-Just’s quote, “Nobody can rule guiltlessly,” appears as an epigraph before chapter one in Arthur Koestler’s 1941 anti-totalitarian novel Darkness At Noon. Saint-Just had previously remained silent about the Girondins, but now clearly stood with Robespierre who had been thoroughly opposed to most of them for a long time. 124. The sans-culottes—deemed "the people" by many radicals, and represented by the Paris Commune—had grown antipathetic to the moderate Girondins. His father was a retired cavalry captain and his mother was from the upper middle class. — Speech to the National Convention (December 27, 1792). He was the eldest of three children of Louis Jean de Saint-Just de Richebourg a retired French cavalry officer who died when he was three and of the 20-years younger Marie-Anne Robinot, the daughter of a notary. Own lengthy proposal on 24 April 1793 remained most dedicated to his role as Robespierre 's political position degraded... His speech, he was still an undistinguished adolescent the initial indictment by the invasion the! 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